An expansion term in Hamilton's equations
Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics,
University of Cape Town, South Africa
Accepted: 30 October 1998
For any given spacetime the choice of time coordinate is undetermined. A particular choice is the absolute time associated with a preferred vector field. Using the absolute time Hamilton's equations are , where is the expansion of the vector field. Thus there is a hitherto unnoticed term in the expansion of the preferred vector field. Hamilton's equations can be used to describe fluid motion. In this case the absolute time is the time associated with the fluid's co-moving vector. As measured by this absolute time the expansion term is present. Similarly in cosmology, each observer has a co-moving vector and Hamilton's equations again have an expansion term. It is necessary to include the expansion term to quantize systems such as the above by the canonical method of replacing Dirac brackets by commutators. Hamilton's equations in this form do not have a corresponding sympletic form. Replacing the expansion by a particle number and introducing the particle numbers conjugate momentum the standard sympletic form can be recovered with two extra fields N and . Briefly the possibility of a non-standard sympletic form and the further possibility of there being a non-zero Finsler curvature corresponding to this are looked at.
PACS: 11.10.Ef – Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approach / 04.60.Ds – Canonical quantization / 52.60.+h – Relativistic plasma
© EDP Sciences, 1999