Transition between phantom and non-phantom phases with time-dependent cosmological constant and Cardy-Verlinde formula
Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia - 40210-340, Salvador, BA, Brazil
Accepted: 6 April 2011
We investigate the transition phenomenon of the universe between a phantom and a non-phantom phase. Particular attention is devoted to the case in which the cosmological constant depends on time and is proportional to the square of the Hubble parameter. Inhomogeneous equations of state are used and the equation of motion is solved. We find that, depending on the choice of the input parameters, the universe can transit from the non-phantom to the phantom phase leading to the appearance of singularities. In particular, we find that the phantom universe ends in a singularity of type III, unlike the case without variable cosmological constant in which the phantom phase ends exclusively in the big rip (singularity of type I). The Cardy-Verlinde formula is also introduced for the inhomogeneous equation of state and we find that its equivalence with the total entropy of the universe, coming from the Friedmann equations, occurs only for a special choice of the input parameter m at the present time.
PACS: 98.80.Es – Observational cosmology (including Hubble constant, distance scale, cosmological constant, early Universe, etc) / 95.36.+x – Dark energy / 05.70.-a – Thermodynamics
© EPLA, 2011