Model for common growth of supermassive black holes, bulges and globular star clusters: Ripping off Jeans clusters
Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam - Science Park 904, P.O. Box 94485, 1090 GL Amsterdam, The Netherlands, EU
2 Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University - 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
Accepted: 22 December 2011
It is assumed that a galaxy starts as a dark halo of a few million Jeans clusters (JCs), each of which consists of nearly a trillion micro brown dwarfs, MACHOs of Earth mass. JCs in the galaxy center heat up their MACHOs by tidal forces, which makes them expand, so that coagulation and star formation occurs. Being continuously fed by matter from bypassing JCs, the central star(s) may transform into a super massive black hole. It has a fast t3 growth during the first mega years, and a slow t1/3 growth at giga years. JCs disrupted by a close encounter with this black hole can provide matter for the bulge. Those that survive can be so agitated that they form stars inside them and become globular star clusters. Thus black holes mostly arise together with galactic bulges in their own environment and are about as old as the oldest globular clusters. The age 13.2 Gy of the star HE 1523-0901 puts forward that the Galactic halo was fully assembled at that moment. The star formation rate has a maximum at black hole mass ∼4·107M⊙ and bulge mass ∼5·1010M⊙. In case of merging supermassive black holes the JCs passing near the galactic center provide ideal assistance to overcome the last parsec.
PACS: 98.62.Js – Galactic nuclei (including black holes), circumnuclear matter, and bulges / 95.35.+d – Dark matter (stellar, interstellar, galactic, and cosmological) / 98.20.Jp – Globular clusters in external galaxies
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