Ge-intercalated graphene: The origin of the p-type to n-type transition
PSE Division, KAUST - Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Received: 5 March 2012
Accepted: 31 July 2012
Recently huge interest has been focussed on Ge-intercalated graphene. In order to address the effect of Ge on the electronic structure, we study Ge-intercalated free-standing C6 and C8 bilayer graphene, bulk C6Ge and C8Ge, as well as Ge-intercalated graphene on a SiC(0001) substrate, by density functional theory. In the presence of SiC(0001), there are three ways to obtain n-type graphene: i) intercalation between C layers; ii) intercalation at the interface to the substrate in combination with Ge deposition on the surface; and iii) cluster intercalation. All other configurations under study result in p-type states irrespective of the Ge coverage. We explain the origin of the different doping states and establish the conditions under which a transition occurs.
PACS: 73.22.Pr – Electronic structure of graphene
© EPLA, 2012