Crystallization of sodium sulfate on hydrophilic/hydrophobic surfaces during drying: An NMR study
1 Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology - PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands, EU
2 Van der Waals - Zeeman Institute-IOP, University of Amsterdam - Science Park, 9041098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands, EU
Received: 14 November 2012
Accepted: 27 March 2013
Sodium sulfate is recognized as a salt with probably the most damaging capabilities when crystallizing in porous media. The three main crystalline phases which can be formed are thenardite (Na2SO4, anhydrous salt), decahydrate (Na2SO4·10H2O) and the thermodynamically metastable heptahydrate (Na2SO4·7H2O). In this study, using a setup in which nuclear magnetic resonance was combined with a digital microscope, we have investigated crystallization by the drying of sodium sulfate droplets on hydrophilic/hydrophobic surfaces in order to see, which crystalline phase is formed.
PACS: 81.10.-h – Methods of crystal growth; physics and chemistry of crystal growth, crystal morphology, and orientation / 61.30.Hn – Surface phenomena: alignment, anchoring, anchoring transitions, surface-induced layering, surface-induced ordering, wetting, prewetting transitions, and wetting transitions / 61.05.Qr – Magnetic resonance techniques; Mössbauer spectroscopy (for structure determination only)
© EPLA, 2013