A comprehensive Monte Carlo calculation of dopant contrast in secondary-electron imagingMaurizio Dapor1, B. J. Inkson1, C. Rodenburg1 and J. M. Rodenburg2
1 Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield - Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK, EU
2 Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield - Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK, EU
received 11 December 2007; accepted in final form 20 March 2008; published May 2008
published online 17 April 2008
Two-dimensional dopant mapping using secondary electrons in a scanning electron microscope is a useful and rapid technique for studying dopant distributions with high spatial resolution in semiconductor materials and devices. However, it has not yet found widespread application because the quantification of dopant concentrations currently lacks a firm theoretical model. This paper addresses the issue by means of Monte Carlo modelling. We demonstrate that by taking account of the electron affinity in Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the secondary-electron emission from doped silicon the dopant contrast can be explained. This paper also provides a firm theoretical model about the existence of surface effects in dopant contrast imaging.
02.70.Uu - Applications of Monte Carlo methods.
79.20.Hx - Electron impact: secondary emission.
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