Europhys. Lett.
Volume 48, Number 5, December 1999
Page(s) 526 - 532
Section Electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics
Published online 01 September 2002
DOI: 10.1209/epl/i1999-00516-1

Europhys. Lett, 48 (5), pp. 526-532 (1999)

Analytical calculation of the excess noise for different aperture shapes

K. Joosten and G. Nienhuis

Huygens Laboratorium, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden
Postbus 9504, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands

(received 2 August 1999; accepted in final form 6 October 1999)

PACS. 42.25Fx - Diffraction and scattering.
PACS. 42.50Lc - Quantum fluctuations, quantum noise, and quantum jumps.
PACS. 42.60Da - Resonators, cavities, amplifiers, arrays, and rings.


We present an analytical calculation of the transverse excess noise factor which arises when a small aperture of arbitrary shape is placed at an out-coupling mirror of a laser resonator. We show that for small apertures the excess noise can be written in terms of the far-field diffraction pattern of the aperture. We expand the excess noise in the aperture area. The leading term depends on the area but not on the shape of the aperture, whereas the next term is solely determined by the shape. The list of shapes ordered in increasing value of the excess noise based on this analytical calculation agrees with that based on numerical and experimental data for unstable resonators with large apertures.


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