Topological order in the (2+1)D compact lattice superconductorA. Vestergren1, J. Lidmar1 and T. H. Hansson2
1 Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
2 Fysikum, Stockholm University, AlbaNova - SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
received 13 September 2004; accepted 4 November 2004
published online 17 December 2004
We study topological aspects of a compact lattice superconductor, and show that the characteristic energy splitting, , between almost degenerate ground states, is simply related to a novel order parameter , which is closely related to large Wilson loops. Using Monte Carlo methods, we study the scaling properties of close to the deconfining phase transition, and conclude that , where L is the size of the system, thus giving quantitative support to the vortex tunneling scenario proposed by Wen.
74.20.-z - Theories and models of superconducting state.
11.15.Ha - Lattice gauge theory.
71.10.Hf - Non-Fermi-liquid ground states, electron phase diagrams and phase transitions in model systems.
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