Electromagnetic waves with negative phase velocity in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetimeT. G. Mackay1, A. Lakhtakia2 and S. Setiawan1
1 School of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh - Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, UK
2 Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics Pennsylvania State University - University Park, PA 16802-6812, USA
received 17 March 2005; accepted in final form 9 July 2005
published online 10 August 2005
The propagation of electromagnetic plane waves with negative phase velocity (NPV) is considered in Schwarzschild-(anti-)de Sitter spacetime. It is demonstrated that NPV propagation occurs in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime at lower values of the cosmological constant than is the case for de Sitter spacetime. Furthermore, we report that neither is NPV propagation observed in Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter spacetime, nor is it possible outside the event horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole.
41.20.Jb - Electromagnetic wave propagation; radiowave propagation.
04.40.Nr - Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes, spacetimes with fluids, radiation or classical fields.
98.80.-k - Cosmology.
© EDP Sciences 2005