Holstein polaron: The effect of coupling to multiple-phonon modesL. Covaci and M. Berciu
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia - Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1, Canada
received 30 August 2007; accepted in final form 12 October 2007; published December 2007
published online 2 November 2007
We investigate the effects of coupling to multiple-phonon modes on the properties of a Holstein polaron. To this end, we generalize the Momentum Average approximations MA(0) and MA(1) to deal with multiple-phonon modes. As for a single-phonon mode, these approximations are found to be numerically very efficient. They become exact for very weak or very strong couplings, and are highly accurate in the intermediate regimes, e.g. the spectral weights obey exactly the first six, respectively eight, sum rules. Our results show that the effect on ground-state properties is cumulative in nature. As a result, if the effective coupling to one mode is much larger than to all the others, this mode effectively determines the ground-state properties. However, even very weak coupling to a second phonon mode has important non-perturbational effects on the higher-energy spectrum, in particular on the dispersion and the phonon statistics of the polaron band. This has important consequences on the analysis and interpretation of data for real materials.
71.38.-k - Polarons and electron-phonon interactions.
72.10.Di - Scattering by phonons, magnons, and other nonlocalized excitations.
63.20.Kr - Phonon-electron and phonon-phonon interactions.
© Europhysics Letters Association 2007