Volume 83, Number 1, July 2008
Article Number 10008
Number of page(s) 6
Section General
Published online 24 June 2008
EPL, 83 (2008) 10008
DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/83/10008

Supermassive black holes as giant Bose-Einstein condensates

Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen

Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam - Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam, The Netherlands, EU

received 14 January 2008; accepted in final form 26 May 2008; published July 2008
published online 24 June 2008

The Schwarzschild metric has a divergent energy density at the horizon, which motivates a new approach to black holes. If matter is spread uniformly throughout the interior of a supermassive black hole, with mass M~ M$_{\star}$ = 2.34 108M$_{\odot}$, it may arise from a Bose-Einstein condensate of densely packed H atoms. Within the relativistic theory of gravitation with a positive cosmological constant, a bosonic quantum field is coupled to the curvature scalar. In the Bose-Einstein condensed ground state an exact, self-consistent solution for the metric is presented. It is regular with a specific shape at the origin. The redshift at the horizon is finite but large, z~ 1014M$_{\star}$/M. The binding energy remains as an additional parameter to characterize the BH; alternatively, the mass observed at infinity can be any fraction of the rest mass of its constituents.

04.70.Bw - Classical black holes.
04.20.Cv - Fundamental problems and general formalism.
04.20.Jb - Exact solutions.

© EPLA 2008