Supermassive black holes as giant Bose-Einstein condensatesTh. M. Nieuwenhuizen
Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam - Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam, The Netherlands, EU
received 14 January 2008; accepted in final form 26 May 2008; published July 2008
published online 24 June 2008
The Schwarzschild metric has a divergent energy density at the horizon, which motivates a new approach to black holes. If matter is spread uniformly throughout the interior of a supermassive black hole, with mass M~ M = 2.34 108M, it may arise from a Bose-Einstein condensate of densely packed H atoms. Within the relativistic theory of gravitation with a positive cosmological constant, a bosonic quantum field is coupled to the curvature scalar. In the Bose-Einstein condensed ground state an exact, self-consistent solution for the metric is presented. It is regular with a specific shape at the origin. The redshift at the horizon is finite but large, z~ 1014M/M. The binding energy remains as an additional parameter to characterize the BH; alternatively, the mass observed at infinity can be any fraction of the rest mass of its constituents.
04.70.Bw - Classical black holes.
04.20.Cv - Fundamental problems and general formalism.
04.20.Jb - Exact solutions.
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