Relativistic properties for hybrid systems of particles containing photons and massive particlesA. Sfarti
University of California at Berkeley - 387 Soda Hall, 94720-177 Berkeley, CA, USA
received 29 July 2008; accepted in final form 13 August 2008; published October 2008
published online 29 August 2008
The use of relativistic frame invariants is very well established, especially when it comes to the energy-momentum. Most traditional treatments use this particular invariant in order to calculate the "equivalent mass" of a system or, the "mass added to a system". In the following paper we will take a significant departure by avoiding the notion of mass altogether and by using frame-variant quantities like total energy E and momentum p in order to characterize relativistic systems of particles. The systems under evaluations are a most general hybrid made up of both massive particles and photons. We will show the effects of adding photons to a system of massive particles. The new approach is extremely important in applications like particle accelerators where we can only work with directly measurable quantities, the energy E and the momentum p. In paragraph 4 we will demonstrate also how the new approach allows us to calculate the effect of injecting electromagnetic energy in the form of photons in a particle condensate, a very important application for plasma physics.
03.30.+p - Special relativity.
52.20.Dq - Particle orbits.
52.70.Nc - Particle measurements.
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