Knotted vortex lines in spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensatesJ. Liang1, X. Liu2 and Y. Duan1
1 Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University - Lanzhou 730000, PRC
2 School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sydney - Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
received 10 January 2009; accepted in final form 15 March 2009; published April 2009
published online 22 April 2009
Knotted vortex lines in the spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates are studied. The Faddeev-Niemi model is considered, and it is found that naturally there exist topological vortex line structures in the condensates. We focus on the knotted vortex lines and examine their Faddeev-Niemi knot quantum number. It is shown that the Faddeev-Niemi number is identical to the sum of all the (self-)linking numbers of the knots family and is preserved during the branching processes of vortex lines.
03.75.Mn - Multicomponent condensates; spinor condensates.
47.32.cd - Vortex stability and breakdown.
02.10.Kn - Knot theory.
© EPLA 2009