In situ surface-sensitive X-ray investigations of thin quench condensed bismuth filmsC. Markert, D. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, R. Wagner and R. Frahm
Fachbereich C - Physik, University of Wuppertal - Gaußstraße 20, 42097 Wuppertal, Germany
received 5 December 2008; accepted in final form 30 April 2009; published May 2009
published online 5 June 2009
In situ X-ray reflectometry, grazing-incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy and simultaneous electrical resistivity measurements were used to investigate the microstructure of (5.90.1) nm thick bismuth films quench condensed at (201) K onto float-glass substrates. A subsequent annealing process induces an irreversible transformation of the film structure from an amorphous to a highly disordered nanocrystalline structure above (422) K. This transformation is accompanied by an irreversible increase of the film resistivity by a factor of more than 2.7. Different negative temperature coefficients of resistance were found directly after deposition and after the annealing process. No changes of the film density, which is always less than the density of the bulk material, or of the film roughness, are observed as a result of the heat treatment.
68.55.-a - Thin film structure and morphology.
61.05.cm - X-ray reflectometry (surfaces, interfaces, films).
61.05.cj - X-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS, NEXAFS, XANES, etc..
© EPLA 2009