Small worlds in space: Synchronization, spatial and relational modularity
CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, CSIRO Centre for Complex System Science, F. C. Pye Laboratory GPO Box 3023, Clunies Ross Street, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
Accepted: 11 June 2010
In this letter we investigate networks that have been optimized to realize a trade-off between enhanced synchronization and cost of wire to connect the nodes in space. Analyzing the evolved arrangement of nodes in space and their corresponding network topology, a class of small-world networks characterized by spatial and network modularity is found. More precisely, for low cost of wire optimal configurations are characterized by a division of nodes into two spatial groups with maximum distance from each other, whereas network modularity is low. For high cost of wire, the nodes organize into several distinct groups in space that correspond to network modules connected on a ring. In between, spatially and relationally modular small-world networks are found.
PACS: 05.45.Xt – Synchronization; coupled oscillators / 89.75.Fb – Structures and organization in complex systems / 89.75.Hc – Networks and genealogical trees
© EPLA, 2010