Volume 45, Number 4, February II 1999
|Page(s)||470 - 475|
|Section||Electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics|
|Published online||01 September 2002|
Onset of flow in a horizontally vibrated granular bed: Convection by horizontal shearing
Department of Physics and Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems
Duke University - Durham, NC 27708, USA
2 Departments of Mathematics and Physics, Duke University - Durham, NC 27708, USA
Accepted: 16 December 1998
We present experimental observations of the onset of flow for horizontally vibrated 3D granular systems. For accelerations Γ above , the top layers of granular material flow, leading to convection with motion both parallel and transverse to the shaking; the lower part of the layer moves with the shaker in solid body motion. With increasing Γ, more of the layer becomes liquefied. The initial bifurcation is backward, but a small amount of fluidization by gas flow lifts the hysteresis. A new convective mechanism, which we explore both experimentally and computationally, associated with horizontal shearing at the walls, is identified as the mechanism driving the transverse convective flow.
PACS: 46.10.+z – Mechanics of discrete systems / 47.20.-k – Hydrodynamic stability
© EDP Sciences, 1999
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