Volume 54, Number 1, April 2001
|Page(s)||118 - 124|
|Section||Interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology|
|Published online||01 December 2003|
Hysteresis and dynamical phases in a simple one-lane traffic model
Thermodynamique et modélisation des
milieux hors d'équilibre Laboratoire de Chimie des Systèmes Complexes,
Université d'Aix-Marseille III BP 531,
Av. Escadrille Normandie-Niemen,
F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20, France
2 PMMH, École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75231 Paris, France
Accepted: 18 January 2001
A model for single-lane car-following is introduced and its equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties are studied. We modify the optimal velocity model in a way to include the mechanical response of each vehicle to its front car dynamics. Despite its simplicity, this model exhibits a rich phenomenology, like transitions between different dynamical regimes and hysteresis in the fundamental flux-density diagram. We show that traffic jams can spontaneously appear in clustered-like structures. In the jammed phase, we observe a slow relaxation phenomenon ruled by the outgoing vehicle flux that determines the hysteretic dependence of the fundamental flux-density diagram. Coexisting phase regimes are also evidenced as propagating or stationary density waves. The model can be easily calibrated to reproduce experimental observations.
PACS: 89.40.+k – Transportation / 05.40.-a – Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion / 64.60.Cn – Order-disorder transformations; statistical mechanics of model systems
© EDP Sciences, 2001
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