Volume 101, Number 1, January 2013
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Section||Electromagnetism, Optics, Acoustics, Heat Transfer, Classical Mechanics, and Fluid Dynamics|
|Published online||23 January 2013|
Evolution of granular packings by nonlinear acoustic waves
1 Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Divisés et des Interfaces 77454 Marne La Vallée, France, EU
2 Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Universiteit Leiden - P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands, EU
3 Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS UMR 7587 - 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France, EU
Received: 24 September 2012
Accepted: 2 January 2013
We investigate the nonlinear response of pulsed high-amplitude sound transmission in weakly compressed granular materials, simultaneously probing sound amplitude, time-of-flight velocity and harmonic generation. We observe that weakly compressed packings can both exhibit weakening and strengthening when driven by high-amplitude sound, and that weakening/strengthening of the sound velocity and transmission amplitude go hand in hand. We find that strengthening is associated with the generation of second harmonics, whereas for weakening, no appreciable second harmonics are generated. All these findings point to changes in the contact network; effective medium theory can describe these effects qualitatively, but fails to account for them quantitatively.
PACS: 45.70.-n – Granular systems / 43.35.+d – Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound / 91.30.-f – Seismology
© EPLA, 2013
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