Volume 107, Number 3, August 2014
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||24 July 2014|
Quantum quenches, linear response and superfluidity out of equilibrium
1 NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore & Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR - I-56126 Pisa, Italy
2 Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore - 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543
3 Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA) - I-34136 Trieste, Italy
4 International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - I-34151 Trieste, Italy
Received: 13 June 2014
Accepted: 11 July 2014
By analysing the sensitivity to a twist in the boundary conditions of the stationary state attained by a many-body system long after a quantum quench, we extend the concepts of the helicity modulus and the stiffness to non-equilibrium situations. Using these generalised quantities, we characterise the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of hard-core bosons quenched to/from superfluid/insulating phases and show that qualitative new features emerge as compared to the equilibrium case. Our predictions can be tested in experiments with cold bosonic atoms confined in toroidal traps and subject to artificial gauge fields.
PACS: 05.70.Ln – Nonequilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics / 05.30.Jp – Boson systems / 67.85.De – Dynamic properties of condensates; excitations, and superfluid flow
© EPLA, 2014
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