Volume 110, Number 5, June 2015
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Section||Interdisciplinary Physics and Related Areas of Science and Technology|
|Published online||24 June 2015|
Weiqi games as a tree: Zipf's law of openings and beyond
1 School of Sports Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology Shanghai 200237, China
2 Postdoctoral Research Station, East China University of Science and Technology - Shanghai 200237, China
3 Research Center for Econophysics, East China University of Science and Technology - Shanghai 200237, China
4 School of Business, East China University of Science and Technology - Shanghai 200237, China
5 Department of Mathematics, East China University of Science and Technology - Shanghai 200237, China
Received: 11 March 2015
Accepted: 2 June 2015
Weiqi is one of the most complex board games played by two persons. The placement strategies adopted by Weiqi players are often used to analog the philosophy of human wars. Contrary to the western chess, Weiqi games are less studied by academics partially because Weiqi is popular only in East Asia, especially in China, Japan and Korea. Here, we propose to construct a directed tree using a database of extensive Weiqi games and perform a quantitative analysis of the Weiqi tree. We find that the popularity distribution of Weiqi openings with the same number of moves is distributed according to a power law and the tail exponent increases with the number of moves. Intriguingly, the superposition of the popularity distributions of Weiqi openings with a number of moves not higher than a given number also has a power-law tail in which the tail exponent increases with the number of moves, and the superposed distribution approaches the Zipf law. These findings are the same as for chess and support the conjecture that the popularity distribution of board game openings follows the Zipf law with a universal exponent. We also find that the distribution of out-degrees has a power-law form, the distribution of branching ratios has a very complicated pattern, and the distribution of uniqueness scores defined by the path lengths from the root vertex to the leaf vertices exhibits a unimodal shape. Our work provides a promising direction for the study of the decision-making process of Weiqi playing from the perspective of directed branching tree.
PACS: 89.20.-a – Interdisciplinary applications of physics / 01.80.+b – Physics of games and sports / 89.75.Da – Systems obeying scaling laws
© EPLA, 2015
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