Volume 115, Number 2, July 2016
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||18 August 2016|
Fluctuation-dissipation theorem for nonequilibrium quantum systems
1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook - 100 Nicolls Road, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
2 Department of Chemistry, SUNY Stony Brook - 100 Nicolls Road, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
3 State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry - 5625 Renmin St., Changchun 130022, PRC
Received: 7 February 2016
Accepted: 27 July 2016
We present a fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) for nonequilibrium quantum systems with detailed-balance breaking, which deviates from the conventional form of the FDT for equilibrium systems preserving detailed balance. Using the phase space formulation of quantum mechanics and the potential-flux landscape framework, we find that the response function of nonequilibrium quantum systems to external perturbations contains a nontrivial contribution from the quantum curl flux quantifying detailed-balance breaking in the steady state, in addition to the correlation function of observables in the steady state representing the contribution of spontaneous fluctuations which is also present in the equilibrium FDT. We illustrate our general formalism with a harmonic oscillator coupled to two heat baths, and show that the nonequilibrium FDT reduces to the conventional expression at the equilibrium condition when the flux contribution vanishes.
PACS: 05.40.-a – Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion / 05.30.-d – Quantum statistical mechanics
© EPLA, 2016
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