Volume 119, Number 4, August 2017
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||08 November 2017|
The quantum phase-transitions of water
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 8233, MONARIS - F-7505 Paris, France
Received: 13 June 2017
Accepted: 29 September 2017
It is shown that hexagonal ices and steam are macroscopically quantum condensates, with continuous spacetime-translation symmetry, whereas liquid water is a quantum fluid with broken time-translation symmetry. Fusion and vaporization are quantum phase-transitions. The heat capacities, the latent heats, the phase-transition temperatures, the critical temperature, the molar volume expansion of ice relative to water, as well as neutron scattering data and dielectric measurements are explained. The phase-transition mechanisms along with the key role of quantum interferences and that of Hartley-Shannon's entropy are enlightened. The notions of chemical bond and force-field are questioned.
PACS: 03.65.-w – Quantum mechanics / 05.30.Rt – Quantum phase transitions / 64.70.-p – Specific phase transitions
© EPLA, 2017
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