Volume 119, Number 5, September 2017
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||21 November 2017|
Analogue Hawking radiation in an exactly solvable model of BEC
1 Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Università dell'Insubria - via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como, Italy
2 INO-CNR BEC Center - I-38123 Povo, Italy
3 INFN Sezione di Milano - via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano, Italy
Received: 14 August 2017
Accepted: 31 October 2017
Hawking radiation, the spontaneous emission of thermal photons from an event horizon, is one of the most intriguing and elusive predictions of field theory in curved spacetimes. A formally analogue phenomenon occurs at the supersonic transition of a fluid: in this respect, ultracold gases stand out among the most promising systems but the theoretical modelling of this effect has always been carried out in semiclassical approximation, borrowing part of the analysis from the gravitational analogy. Here we discuss the exact solution of a one-dimensional Bose gas flowing against an obstacle, showing that spontaneous phonon emission (the analogue of Hawking radiation) is predicted without reference to the gravitational analogy. Long after the creation of the obstacle, the fluid settles into a stationary state displaying the emission of sound waves (phonons) in the upstream direction. A careful analysis shows that a precise correspondence between this phenomenon and the spontaneous emission of radiation from an event horizon requires additional conditions to be met in future experiments aimed at identifying the occurrence of the Hawking-like mechanism in Bose-Einstein condensates.
PACS: 03.75.Kk – Dynamic properties of condensates; collective and hydrodynamic excitations, superfluid flow / 04.62.+v – Quantum fields in curved spacetime / 67.85.De – Dynamic properties of condensates; excitations, and superfluid flow
© EPLA, 2017
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