Volume 125, Number 1, January 2019
|Number of page(s)||7|
|Published online||30 January 2019|
Fluctuating systems driven between nonequilibrium states: Extractability of work and constraints on the final distribution
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova - via Marzolo 1, I-35131, Padova, Italy
Received: 24 October 2018
Accepted: 2 January 2019
This work deals with fluctuating systems taken out-of-equilibrium by some “activating event”, and then driven by acting upon selected parameters. First we establish general conditions under which an average amount of work can be extracted during the driven transformation; this is what we term extractability of work. Second, from the premise that work is extracted on average, we derive a mutual bound between a measure of the final system's disequilibrium, the free energy variation, and the average amount of energy involved in the activation phase. As a special case, we consider the situation in which the disequilibrium is quantified by the polarization over an a priori unbiased periodic degree of freedom.
PACS: 05.70.Ln – Nonequilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics / 05.40.-a – Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion / 05.20.-y – Classical statistical mechanics
© EPLA, 2019
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