Volume 132, Number 3, November 2020
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Section||Interdisciplinary Physics and Related Areas of Science and Technology|
|Published online||22 December 2020|
Robust cooperation against mutations via costly expulsion
1 Department of Automation, School of Information Science & Technology, Donghua University - Shanghai, China
2 Engineering Research Center of Digitized Textile & Apparel Technology, Donghua University - Shanghai, China
3 Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor - Koroška cesta 160, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
4 Dept. of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University Taichung, Taiwan
5 Complexity Science Hub Vienna - Josefstädterstraße 39, 1080 Vienna, Austria
Received: 24 August 2020
Accepted: 8 October 2020
Research has shown that spatial selection can lead to the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. However, the effectiveness of spatial reciprocity among cooperative players is often diminished by mutations. Here, we report the evolution of robust cooperation against mutations, which is brought about by costly expulsion in the spatial public goods game. We find that costly expulsion is able to enhance the robustness of positive assortment among cooperators against mutations. Moreover, we also show that moderate mutation rates are beneficial for the expansion of spatial clusters among cooperative individuals once the spontaneous formation of segregation patterns is completed by costly expulsion. Our results thus communicate the counterintuitive conclusions that mutations are not always detrimental for the evolution of cooperation in spatial social dilemma games, and what is more, can even be beneficial for faster spreading of cooperator clusters.
PACS: 89.75.-k – Complex systems / 87.23.Cc – Population dynamics and ecological pattern formation / 87.23.Kg – Dynamics of evolution
© 2020 EPLA
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