Volume 132, Number 5, December 2020
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||28 December 2020|
Relaxation of the order-parameter statistics and dynamical confinement
1 Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz - D-55099 Mainz, Germany
2 International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) - via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy
3 International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and INFN - I-34151, Trieste, Italy
Received: 19 May 2020
Accepted: 14 September 2020
We study the relaxation of the local ferromagnetic order in the quantum Ising chain in a slant field with both longitudinal and transverse components. After preparing the system in a fully polarised state, we analyse the time evolution of the entire probability distribution function (PDF) of the magnetisation within a block of ℓ spins. We first analyse the effect of confinement on the Gaussification of the PDF for large ℓ, showing that the melting of initial order is suppressed when the longitudinal field is aligned to initial magnetisation while it is speed up when it is in the opposite direction. Then we study the thermalisation dynamics. In the paramagnetic region, the PDF quickly shows thermal features. Conversely, in the ferromagnetic phase, when confinement takes place, the relaxation suffers a typical slowing down which depends on the interplay between the strength of the longitudinal field, the density of excitations, and the direction of the initial polarisation. Even when the initial magnetisation is aligned oppositely to the longitudinal field, confinement prevents thermalisation in the accessible timescale, as it is neatly bared by the PDF.
PACS: 05.30.-d – Quantum statistical mechanics / 05.50.+q – Lattice theory and statistics (Ising, Potts, etc.)
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