Volume 132, Number 5, December 2020
|Number of page(s)||7|
|Section||Interdisciplinary Physics and Related Areas of Science and Technology|
|Published online||28 December 2020|
Evolution of cooperation in multi-population
1 School of Statistics and Mathematics, Yunnan University of Finance and Economics Kunming, 650221, Yunnan, PRC
2 School of Software, Yunnan University - Kunming, 650504, Yunnan, PRC
3 The Key Laboratory for Software Engineering of Yunnan Province - Kunming, 650504, Yunnan, PRC
4 The Engineering Research Center of Cyberspace - Kunming, 650504, Yunnan, PRC
5 Center for Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University Xi'an, 710072, Shanxi, PRC
6 School of Mechanical Engineering and Center for OPTical IMagery Analysis and Learning (OPTIMAL), Northwestern Polytechnical University - Xi'an, 710072, Shanxi, PRC
Received: 12 February 2020
Accepted: 17 September 2020
Cooperative behavior is key to the survival of species in ecosystems. Here, we extend the traditional prisoner's dilemma game by proposing a multi-population model in which players can obtain a lower payoff via interactions with neighbors belonging to different populations than interactions within the same population. Then we study novel spatiotemporal dynamics of cooperation among multi-populations and find that fascinating pattern forms and spatiotemporal dynamic emerges, accompanied by the self-organization of populations. In particular, under favorable conditions, the system with fewer populations maintains cooperative behavior stability. While under adverse conditions the cycle between populations tends to collapse, leading to a lower level of cooperation. These observations highlight and explain why multi-populations greatly promote cooperative behavior in social dilemmas.
PACS: 87.23.Ge – Dynamics of social systems / 02.50.Le – Decision theory and game theory / 87.23.Cc – Population dynamics and ecological pattern formation
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