Volume 144, Number 4, November 2023
|Number of page(s)
|Fluid and nonlinear dynamics
|11 December 2023
Fluctuation relations at large scales in three-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence
1 Laboratoire de Physique de l’École Normale Supérieure, ENS, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris - F-75005 Paris, France
2 Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, UMR 9015, LISN - F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France
3 Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut Jean Le Rond d'Alembert - F-75005 Paris, France
Received: 10 August 2023
Accepted: 22 November 2023
It has long been conjectured that, in three-dimensional turbulence, velocity modes at scales larger than the forcing scale follow equilibrium dynamics. Recent numerical and experimental evidence shows that such modes share the same mean energy and therefore support this claim, but equilibrium dynamics does not reduce to equipartition of energy. In this work, a large set of direct numerical simulations is carried out to investigate if fluctuation-dissipation relations and the fluctuation theorem also apply at these scales. These two results link out-of-equilibrium properties of a forced system with its behavior at equilibrium. Both relations are verified quantitatively by the results of our simulations, further supporting that large-scale modes display equilibrium dynamics. They provide new tools to characterize both the mean value and the fluctuations of the injected energy by a large-scale force acting on turbulence driven by small scale random noise.
© 2023 EPLA
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