Volume 80, Number 2, October 2007
Article Number 20001
Number of page(s) 5
Section General
Published online 12 September 2007
EPL, 80 (2007) 20001
DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/80/20001

Spatial patterns in optical lattices submitted to gauge potentials

N. Goldman

Center for Nonlinear Phenomena and Complex Systems - Université Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.) - Code Postal 231, Campus Plaine, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium

received 22 July 2007; accepted in final form 22 August 2007; published October 2007
published online 12 September 2007

We study the vortex formation in optical lattices submitted to artificial gauge potentials. We compute the superfluid density for Abelian and non-Abelian gauge potentials with a mean-field approach of the Bose-Hubbard model and we determine the rule describing the number of vortices as a function of the effective magnetic flux. This simple rule is represented by a remarkably rich figure that represents the superfluid density as a function of the flux. The phenomena which emanate from this work should be observed experimentally in optical lattices within which atom tunneling is laser-assisted and described by commutative or non-commutative tunneling operators.

03.75.Lm - Tunneling, Josephson effect, Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials, solitons, vortices, and topological excitations.
05.30.Jp - Boson systems.
67.40.Db - Quantum statistical theory; ground state, elementary excitations.

© Europhysics Letters Association 2007