Volume 80, Number 2, October 2007
|Number of page(s)||5|
|Published online||12 September 2007|
Spatial patterns in optical lattices submitted to gauge potentials
Center for Nonlinear Phenomena and Complex Systems - Université Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.) - Code Postal 231, Campus Plaine, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium
Accepted: 22 August 2007
We study the vortex formation in optical lattices submitted to artificial gauge potentials. We compute the superfluid density for Abelian and non-Abelian gauge potentials with a mean-field approach of the Bose-Hubbard model and we determine the rule describing the number of vortices as a function of the effective magnetic flux. This simple rule is represented by a remarkably rich figure that represents the superfluid density as a function of the flux. The phenomena which emanate from this work should be observed experimentally in optical lattices within which atom tunneling is laser-assisted and described by commutative or non-commutative tunneling operators.
PACS: 03.75.Lm – Tunneling, Josephson effect, Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials, solitons, vortices, and topological excitations / 05.30.Jp – Boson systems / 67.40.Db – Quantum statistical theory; ground state, elementary excitations
© Europhysics Letters Association, 2007
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