Volume 120, Number 4, November 2017
|Number of page(s)||7|
|Section||Electromagnetism, Optics, Acoustics, Heat Transfer, Classical Mechanics, and Fluid Dynamics|
|Published online||09 February 2018|
Topology of force networks in granular media under impact
1 Department of Physics & Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Duke University - Durham NC 27708, USA
2 Department of Physics and James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago - 5720 S. Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Received: 5 September 2017
Accepted: 18 January 2018
We investigate the evolution of the force network in experimental systems of two-dimensional granular materials under impact. We use the first Betti number, , and persistence diagrams, as measures of the topological properties of the force network. We show that the structure of the network has a complex, hysteretic dependence on both the intruder acceleration and the total force response of the granular material. can also distinguish between the nonlinear formation and relaxation of the force network. In addition, using the persistence diagram of the force network, we show that the size of the loops in the force network has a Poisson-like distribution, the characteristic size of which changes over the course of the impact.
PACS: 45.70.-n – Granular systems
© EPLA, 2018
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